But as John Mock asks p.
Despite other hegemonic political discourses, homogeneity did not make sense to scholars for a long time. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 assess particular ways of escaping from normative masculinity. Patrick W. Paul Christensen explores the oddly positive tolerance of inebriated people in public life.
~ 秋山友香 東京大学 工学系研究科 国際工学教育推進機構 講師
The text presents a critical approach to the relationship between masculinity and alcoholism, which seems to be socially acceptable. Christensen reveals how associations such as Alcoholic Anonymous and the Sobriety Association seek to escape these structures in which masculine identity is created around alcohol consumption. Hirofumi Katsuno explores issues of masculinity from another angle, focusing on the rise of amateur robot builders in Japan and their interactions with the cyber-world as an escapism that lies between fantasy and reality. To Katsuno, this leisure activity allows its practitioners freedom from a society full of anxiety and corporate constraints.
White discusses the irony of how Murakami challenges the rhetoric of nationalism dominating Japanese public discourse today while his literature is appropriated as a national cultural institution. Thus, White assesses how Murakami defies the uses of soft power by bringing to the fore the translational dimension of his work.
The second half of the volume revolves around physical escape: Japanese retirees moving to Malaysia, Japanese tourists in Taiwan, Japanese seeking alternative ways of life in Hokkaido, and Ainu people moving to Tokyo. In chapter 7, Kylie Martin discusses the displacement of Ainu people from Hokkaido to Tokyo, which can be studied in terms of dislocation, marginalisation and re-invention.
Martin shows that Tokyo offers an urban landscape that allows the younger Ainu generation to create hybridised forms of identity.
Interrogating Forms of Dissidence
This chapter explores new artistic activities, mainly using musical performances and innovative cultural and linguistic practices challenging traditional Ainu forms. Thus, Martin understands escape as a form of resistance from essentialist ideas of being Ainu, bringing to the fore cultural practices that illustrate new attitudes of pride and empowerment rather than pessimism about marginalisation. Book Description Routledge, Condition: New.
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ejcjs - Interrogating Forms of Dissidence: An Approach to Physical and Mental Escapes from Japan
From such a viewpoint, the entire network of teachers and craftsmen loses essential aspects of its functions and meanings. Okamura was very conscious Making art the Japanese way: nihonga 51 of his efforts to make use of the issues of local culture and national heritage and in this respect his case can be treated as somewhat exemplary. When visiting his studio, I have always had the feeling that there is something ritualistic in the way he approaches his creative work. His movements were somehow more precise and better articulated, there was something more vividly expressive about them.
At this point I would like to present another description that will deal with one more point I want to make about nihonga as symbolic action. These lessons always proceeded according to the same pattern, with the roles of the participants clearly articulated. I have participated in many such keiko, of which the lessons on applying gold leaves kinpaku and on applying a particular kind of washi, hosokawa-shi, for urauchi forming a soft ground layer on the panel on which the washi for actual painting is mounted were the most impressionistic. The class took place in one of the big studios of the university allowing quite a large number of students twenty to thirty to assemble to learn.
Behind these tables was a much respected teacher of kinpaku techniques. After naming the necessary tools and materials, these were prepared by the young assistants of the nihonga department. As the entire procedure was repeated at least three times, everyone had the possibility to observe and to memorise. Kinpaku — thin leaves of real gold — is expensive material and this occasion provided the entire ceremony with an atmosphere of increased importance: every mistake could be fatal, damaging the leaves irretrievably.
After the initial stage of observation came the stage of repetition. This was repeated twice. The lesson ended with a well-orchestrated thanking and farewell ritual.
To observe and to imitate forms in such manner it is necessary to trust the tradition that has produced them. The concept of originality is usually considered to be alien to Japanese aesthetics Moeran Such a standpoint is close to the ideas of Mono-ha. Consider two quotations from the writings of its proponents: The world exists without our creating it.
How then can I dare to attempt to create? All I can do is to be myself in the world that is itself, and show it in a striking way. Sekine, in Makino We need to learn to see the world as it is, everything in its naked state, without attaching symbolic meanings that are human in origin and turning it into an object of human action. Everything has been there since the [sic] time immemorial, and the world is already open to us.
Needless to say, the Japanese follow the latter pattern — that of craftsmanship. When examining the phenomenon of copying in Japanese architecture, Yamaguchi Masao observes that the eternal connection to origins in Japan is ensured not by the durability of the materials as in the West , but by the permanence of the patterns — models, images, and forms.
It is from this perspective that we can consider nihonga to emerge out of the application of the Japanese pattern of artistic practice to the imported Western ideas of art. It is probably easier to recognise this model in performing arts than in painting, but as soon as we approach nihonga primarily as a context-sensitive process koto and not simply as sets of pictures mono , the kata aspect of nihonga inevitably comes to the fore Raud My aim has been to try and reveal new aspects of the nihonga paintings that reach us mostly in the form of reproductions and to try to show them rather as a stage in a rich and multilayered cultural practice different from our own whereby we see them not just as art objects, more or less similar to the ones we are capable of producing ourselves.
Notes 1 Cf. Also see the note on chijimi in Lebra and Lebra , p. References Bowring, R. Carr, B. Eliade, M. Haito, M. Making art the Japanese way: nihonga 55 Karatani, K. Marra ed. Kasulis, T. Lee, U-Fan.
Makino, K. Lebra, and W. Perry, G. Raud, R. Steiner, G. Suzuki, D. Tuttle Company. Yuasa, Y.
Saturday 21 April 2018: Screening Room 1, The Soho Hotel, 4 Richmond Mews, London, W1D 3DH
Yamaguchi, M. Yamawaki, K. Iwamoto wanted to make sure that during his tenure the new museum would serve as a catalyst to draw tourism money to the city, rather than being a drain on its resources. Eyal Ben-Ari argues that analysis of Japanese heritage making requires recognition of the juxtaposition and interconnection of two levels of analysis: the local and the national.
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An emphasis on the national reveals a fundamental pressure toward the centralization of power and homogenization of identity, but the local can either play a supporting role in the expression of national character or facilitate the assertion of particular local identities in opposition to a homogenized nationhood.
Source: Photo by the author. Open-air museums such as Hida Minzoku-mura have contributed to the discussion concerning national culture while embodying and enacting local identities and cultural differences that are equally a part of the postwar era. In May , not yet 16 years old, Nagakura left school in mid-term and went to Seto, in Aichi prefecture, to take up an apprenticeship in ceramic production. Seto has had a pottery industry for more than a millennium; as early as the Kamakura period — it was recognized as home to one of the six great ceramic centers of Japan.
During his time in Seto, Nagakura began to take an active interest in the study, protection, and promotion of cultural artifacts and practices. During this period, Nagakura turned to the study of folklore, beginning an investigation of material folk culture that he would continue for the rest of his life.
Discharged in August , he returned to Takayama, not yet 34 years old but, despite the wartime interruption, with over a decade of experience in the production of ceramics. In Takayama, Nagakura soon began on his own to research a local pottery style called Koito-yaki, eventually excavating and restoring the ruins of a Koito-yaki kiln on the outskirts of the city.
Nagakura was long a mainstay of the regional arts community, at one time raising money toward the relocation of a building to the Takayama museum by convincing a local painter to donate one of his works for sale. By , the Sankei-en was displaying eleven structures that represented various religious and secular architectural styles centering on the culture of the sixteenth century.
Yanagita did not always assert the existence of a national, homogeneous identity in his writings. In postwar writings, local customs continued to be used to represent a national cultural character. While as director he successfully expanded the museum to include many more buildings, Nagakura was never himself in spirit or in practice an architectural historian.
Among his many publications, none offers a concerted discussion of architectural history or style. In fact, as containers, the buildings in Hida Minzoku-mura seem to have been remarkably undervalued. In various ways, the emphasis in folklore studies in Japan has served to promote unifying and homogenizing national agendas. The history of Hida Minzoku-mura, however, also reveals fundamental dynamics that have promoted, in contrast, local over national interests.
The expression of locality in the establishment of heritage-preservation facilities may be both structural and presentational, and the postwar political climate in Japan favored the apparent localization of preservation in both areas.
Related Language, Education and Citizenship in Japan (Japan Anthropology Workshop Series)
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