The work was engraved a year later by the Venetian Giovanni Folo. A bust of Countess Sophie Magdalene Knuth, born Moltke, as Diana soon followed, as did a bust of Danish author and literary salon doyenne Friederike Brun and, commissioned by the latter, a bust of Cardinal Borgia. In Cardelli was summoned to Naples to execute a monument for the RiarioSforza family, but, having fallen gravely ill during the journey, died aged This untimely death certainly cut short a career that would have been most brilliant, and slowly distracted scholarly attention from this most talented artist.
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Kragelund and M. Cardelli thus emerges as a highly successful sculptor, especially in demand for his portrait busts, such as the present work.
The union was considered below his rank and only officialized some years later. The family fled the country at the beginning of the French Revolution and moved to Rome. The Countess died there in and some years later Francis Xavier left the Eternal City to return to his native Saxony, where he died in In other words, there is a possibility that the present bust was originally executed by Cardelli for the Priori of Fermo, but ultimately given to the Prince and his family instead, whose descendants treasured it for generations.
Indeed the present bust perfectly represents the type of portrait that an aristocrat and statesman such as Francis Xavier would have appreciated, in the guise of a victorious Roman general yet with clearly recognizable facial features. A fascinating rediscovery, the present bust is therefore a major addition to the oeuvre of one of the foremost interpreters of Roman Neoclassicism. Hartmann, Canova e Thorvaldsen, Rome, , pp.
Jahrhundert, Braunschweig, , p. Van Binnebeke, Willem Danielsz. Scholten et al. He is first documented assisting the Grand Ducal sculptor Benvenuto Cellini — at the Medici court in Florence in , when the Italian master was working on his famous bronze Perseus now in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. In Tetrode received a payment for work on the base of that statue.
At around the same time he travelled to Rome, where he entered the workshop of Guglielmo della Porta c. He is recorded in Delft, the city believed to be his birthplace, in , and soon afterwards in Cologne. In the German city he enjoyed the patronage of prominent members of the laity, who sought his models after Roman antiquities, and of the Elector-Archbishop, Salentin von Isenburg see Wengraf , p.
Tetrode died in Germany in The composition derives from an ancient Roman marble group dated to the third century a. This has been variously understood to represent Neoptolemus and Astyanax, Atreus with the son of Thyestes, Hector rescuing the body of Troilus, Athamas with Learchus and Commodus as a Gladiator.
Close parallels between the latter and the present bronze also exist in the treatment of anatomical details, such as the deeply incised eyes and the sculpturally defined curls of hair, and in the overall crisp quality of the modelling. Considering these elements, Frits Scholten has proposed that our bronze may also have been executed in Pitigliano, where Tetrode is recorded as having worked on commissions other than the cabinet see Scholten , p. The same scholar has observed that attribution of the present group to Tetrode is further confirmed by its integrally cast base fig.
The unique composition of the Baths of Caracalla marble group, with its powerful image of a man holding a wounded youth across his back, must have particularly intrigued Renaissance artists, ever eager to measure their ability against the masters of the past and to push the boundaries of their craft. This spirit certainly animated Tetrode, whose production betrays from the start a desire to appropriate and reinvent ancient models through a distinctively personal sculptural language.
In this light, it is important to bear in mind that Tetrode carried out precisely this type of work during his Roman years, and it is therefore possible that the Neoptolemus and Astyanax might have been one of the antiques he helped restore. The fame of the subject, combined with the distinctiveness of the composition, would have certainly appeared to our artist — a young sculptor wishing to establish himself within the highly competitive landscape of papal Rome — as an excellent opportunity to prove his skill.
This interpretation was mainly disseminated by the prominent classicist Jacobus Gronovius — , whose account was repeatedly followed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, most importantly by the noted German archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann —; see Storia delle Arti del Disegno presso gli Antichi, trans. Fea, , vol. II, book XII, p. V, pl. XII, pl. The episode is first recorded in a collection of post-Homeric Greek poetry nand was reprised by Euripides in his b.
Intriguingly, according to medieval legend Astyanax actually survived the Trojan war, established the kingdom of Messina in Sicily and founded the lineage from which the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne descended. Another interpretation, currently proposed by some scholars, also rooted in the Homeric tradition, is that the marble represents Hector retrieving the lifeless body of his brother Troilus, who had died at the hands of the mighty Achilles see Cantilena et al.
Medri, I bronzi artistici del civico museo di Schifanoia, Ferrara, , p. By May he had acquired enough money through grants and prizes to travel to the Eternal City in search of the great examples of ancient sculpture. He achieved much success, fame and fortune in his Roman years, working in the studio of Bartolomeo Cavaceppi, before opening his own workshop on the via Babuino, which mostly catered for the booming Grand Tour market.
Nollekens returned to England on 24 December , taking a significant town-house property at the fashionable address of 9 Mortimer Street, Marylebone, and on 9 February was elected a full member of the Royal Academy. His work attracted a prestigious list of clients and he soon became the most celebrated sculptor in the land. In , Nollekens carved the primary version of his famous bust of Charles James Fox, the leader of the Whig party.
Christie has been occupied during the last three days in selling the antique and modern Sculpture, the Models by the great Cinquecento of Italian Artists, together with a few Pictures and Prints, all the property of this extraordinary person, whose recent testamentary disposition of his immense wealth, amassed by unwearied labour and severe parsimony, during a long life, has excited so much of the public attention. Most of the Noble Persons in the kingdom, who are collectors and patrons of the Arts, were present each day, and manifested unusual ardour in their competition for the rare and valuable articles.
It is unclear exactly whether the successful bidder was indeed Joseph Mallord William Turner — , but one can only assume it was the great, British, romantic painter, who would have been aged 48 at the time. Smith Smith , p. I have been assured by Mr. Turner, the Royal Academician, that when he solicited Mr. The subject of the present work is found in the Old Testament. In the Book of Genesis, Lot kindly offered hospitality to two travelling angels and protected them against the lusty advances of two local men in the middle of the night.
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Meanwhile, God had decided that the immoral and licentious city in which Lot and his family lived — Sodom — together with the equally disreputable neighbouring city of Gomorrah, should be destroyed to cleanse them of sin. When Lot and his daughters reached safety and the cities had been destroyed, they became convinced that they were the last surviving humans on earth.
The result was the birth of two boys, Ammon and Moab Genesis 30— Nollekens also exhibited ten or so terracottas at the Royal Academy between and , so it is clear that he considered them to be finished, independent works.
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In fact, all the models submitted by the young Nollekens and his contemporaries to the Society of Arts were made from fired clay KenworthyBrowne , p. These might include the work identified by Katharine Esdaile as A Young Man Sinking in Death, which perhaps represented the first sketch for the monument to Lord Robert Manners that was intended for the chapel at Belvoir Castle, but which was not ultimately carried out Bilbey and Trusted , p.
Garlick, A. Mackintyre and K. Cave, —84, vol. Esdaile, The Art of Rysbrack in Terracotta, exh. Whinney, English Sculpture —, London, , p. Bilbey and M. Trusted, British Sculpture to Roscoe, E. Hardy and M. Sullivan, eds. A Pair of Pacing and Leaping Bulls, c. It is known that he was in Rome as early as the s, presumably after having finished his initial training in France SeeligTeuwen , pp.
Drawing on his time spent in Rome with Jacquio, Prieur initiated and influenced the development of the small bronze statuette genre in France during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Warren , p. Prieur had returned to Paris by the time of his marriage to Marguerite Dalencourt on 27 September and was recorded as having made some small-scale bronzes by Grodecki , pp.
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In this capacity he is known to have made reliefs for the Petite Galerie of the Louvre around , alongside restoring certain antique statues for the King. French bronze collectors were particularly fond of works both after famed antique statues and after models by Giambologna Wenley , p. According to the great Giambologna scholar, Charles Avery, at this time there were probably several Florentine grandees at the French court who possessed statuettes by Giambologna. These included the Gondi family, one of whom owned a wax model by Giambologna for his Bull. They also had a myriad of associations and latent symbolism, whether this was to the Egyptian cult of the bull-god of Apis, to the Cretan bull captured by Hercules, to Achelous, whom he wrestled, to the form that Zeus took in the abduction of Europa, to the two fire-breathing bulls who guarded the Golden Fleece, or perhaps to Taurus, the second sign of the Zodiac; in the Christian tradition, the bull could have symbolized the Golden bull Calf that was worshipped by both the Israelites and King Solomon.
Briere and M.
II, Paris, , pp. Pincus, ed. Studies in the History of Art, vol.
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Bust of a Muse, c. Baruzzi front lower centre inscribed Musa front socle provenance Private collection, Belgium literature A. Mampieri, Cincinnato Baruzzi, Bologna, , p. Cincinnato Baruzzi was born in in the Italian town of Imola, which lies 40 kilometres east of Bologna. Having initially trained at the Bolognese Accademia Clementina under the sculptor Giacomo de Maria — , in Baruzzi moved to Rome, where he entered the studio of the great Antonio Canova — , famously hailed by his contemporaries as the first modern master to rival those of antiquity.
In this capacity Baruzzi completed the works Canova had left unfinished and carved in marble a number of his models, such as the famous Hebe. This exquisite bust of a youthful female figure is inspired by a sculpture by Canova known as Ideal Head, carved in marble around and now preserved in the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas.
The connection our Musa establishes with antique models is not solely a stylistic one.
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